Search for:

Selection of reservoir site

Types of Dams - Site Selection of Dam - Civil Engineering Notes

Before finally selecting the reservoir site following factors should be seriously considered.

  1. Catchment area should have such geological conditions that percolation and absorption losses are minimum.
  2. Available run-off should be maximum.
  3. The site should be free from fissured rocks.
  4. This will avoid possibilities of leakage when reservoir is full to capacity.
  5. The reservoir site must have adequate capacity.
  6. The reservoir basin should have a deep narrow opening in the valley so that the length of the dam may be kept minimum.
  7. Heavily silt laden tributaries should not lead their discharge to the reservoir.
  8. Suitable site for dam should be available.
  9. It will be an ideal site if dam is constructed atthe narrow and shallow part of the river which lies down stream of the deep river.
  10. It is very important point as cost of dam is often a controlling factor in selection of the reservoirs site.
  11. Site should be such that deep reservoir is formed.
  12. Deep reservoir would store more of water and expose minimum area at the surface for evaporation.
  13. If earthen dam is propose to be construct, then separate suitable site for spillway works should be available.
  14. Reservoir site should be well connecte by rail and road.
  15. Materials for the construction of dam should be available nearby.
  16. The soil formation at reservoir site should be free from harmful salts.
  17. If reservoir water is to be use for irrigation, the dam site should be near the area propose to be irrigate.
  18. This would reduce the length of the canal system and consequently the cost of the project.
  19. Reservoir should not submerge habited area or areas of fertile lands or gardens.
  20. River banks should be hard, strong and high so that cost on river training works is minimum.

Trail Run Little River State Park

Three friends who love trail running together were given the gift of the ultimate project by the Vermont State Parks Director—to trail run in as many beautiful state parks as we can, write interesting blog entries about our experiences, and take photos of our sparkling smiles while we do it. Yes, life really does get better all the time.

After several intense meetings in the middle of our cubicle maze workspace, we decided to start with Little River State Park in Waterbury.

Little River is a popular park with two camping loops and two beaches on a clear, refreshing, sandy-bottomed Waterbury Reservoir. Thousands of people spend time in their sleeping bags, in front of campfires, and paddling around the reservoir during the summer and fall. Few people dig into the miles and miles of trails full of history and natural beauty on the other side of the park.

Running trails in Little River is a journey through time. The miles of stone walls, cemeteries, cellar holes and orchards give evidence of life one hundred years ago. The pioneers cleared the fields and roads of rocks and stumps without the aid of machinery. The younger generations were not as prone to such laborious work and abandoned their farms, leaving them for the forest to reclaim. This seemed like the perfect spot to explore on our first state park trail running adventure together.

Running at Little River State Park
The gang plans their route

Jay, Steve, and I invited our friend Matt, who is training for the Vermont 100 trail race later this summer—Matt is preparing by running twice a day and running at every hour of the day. Yes, we have really fun and interesting friends. The four of us took off after work and parked at the Dalley Loop trailhead parking lot on the way to campground loop B in Little River.

You can access the whole network of trails from this starting point; we decided to make a loop starting with a section of the Hedgehog Loop Trail. We set out at about 6:00 pm, the skies were getting dark with the threat of raindrops, but none fell on us. The sky was constantly changing during our two-hour adventure, with bright spots of sunlight surprising us by sporadically illuminating the fresh green leaves, and dark purple clouds folding over each other in viewpoints along the way.

Of course, we had wonderful company in each other, there were lots of great jokes and storytelling, but there is so much to entertain you out there if you go on a solo adventure or if your company is not as lively as ours. There is so much history in the Little River and Cottonwood Brook basin, there are interpretive panels along many of the trails so you can stop for a snack and read about the people who used to live there (we did that) and you can enjoy Vermont natural history at its best. Some of the things we saw and heard included a pink lady slipper flower, Barred Owls making territorial calls, Ruffed Grouse drumming (and we spooked one off its roost), foam flowers, Canada mayflowers, and Veeries singing songs like waterfalls during the last few downhill miles.

You might notice something left out of that list, biting insects. I think we maybe saw one mosquito during the whole run. We even loitered in the parking lot afterward and there were no blackflies. We don’t know how long these conditions will last, but right now it’s definitely a good time to go trail running at Little River if you don’t like bug bites!

From Hedgehog Hill Trail we turned on Cotton Brook Loop Trail. This was a nice climb out of the Stephenson Brook drainage into the Cotton Brook area. The trail has the feel of an old tote road combined with a single-track because there is a narrow path through the bushy mass of several years of growth. It gives you the feeling of being in an area not heavily visited, like a secret stash of running trails.

We were trying to make a loop by turning left at the Bragg homestead to cut over to the Dalley Loop Trail, but we never saw that intersection. We overshot that and ran to a nice solid bridge over Cotton Brook. We admired that rippling stream and then turned around and ran to the Kelty Trail, which also connects to Dalley Loop.

One of the great things about trail running is the adventure, you usually do not know exactly how things will turn out but you always end up having fun and you always end up somewhere really cool. Steve packed a map to make sure we did not get completely turned around, which I recommend. You can pick up a map at the park office.

The Kelty stretch was wetter and not heavily traveled; still, it was easy footing (all the trails we ran had easy footing). Ferns were everywhere around us, everything vibrant, bright green even in the low light. Lots of ghost stories come out of this area because the hillside is dotted with house foundations from people who all moved out with the advent of the Waterbury Reservoir. Being way out in the quiet woods surrounded by signs of people who used to live there, with the skies darkening, I can understand how easy it is to get your imagination going. I am not going to lie to you, I ran very, very close to Steve during the Kelty crossover! It was so quiet and felt very spooky in there, it was very thrilling.

Once we hit the Dalley Loop, we turned right and ran the rest of the loop counter-clockwise. Our run ended with a nice smooth downhill back to the trailhead. After nine miles and two hours, we toasted with cans of Baxter Brewing Company IPA courtesy of Steve. That was a fitting conclusion to a really fun trail run with good friends.

Little River Trail Run Photo Gallery >>


Waterbury Reservoir’s future could be at risk

The Waterbury Reservoir’s many swimming and boating possibilities drew 42,000 people this summer to the state park. Photo by Gordon Miller/Stowe Reporter

An argument about how to run the flood-control dam that creates the reservoir could lead to a decision to stop filling up the reservoir for summertime use.

And the reservoir gets a ton of summertime use. It is the centerpiece of Waterbury Center State Park, which is wrapping up a record-breaking season. This summer, more than 42,000 visitors have enjoyed swimming, boating, picnicking and hiking through the park, not to mention the naturalist programs that the park enables.

The reservoir’s future revolves around a new license for Green Mountain Power’s hydropower plant at the base of the flood-control dam. The utility has operated the hydro plant since 1953, but its license lapsed nearly two decades ago. Now, the company is seeking a new license from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

In addition, a permit is required from the watershed management division within the state’s Department of Environmental Conservation.

Permit questions like these involve a balancing of hydropower benefits and environmental concerns.

The state agency will look at “everything from the effects on habitats, overall water quality, water temperatures, sediment levels as well as how the water flows and what happens to water downstream,” said Jeff Crocker, a river ecologist with the watershed division.

Those concerns also involve the effects on fish and other wildlife from raising and lowering the reservoir’s level season by season.

Now, the reservoir is drawn down to 562 feet above sea level in the winter, making room for the spring runoff that, except for the Waterbury dam, could cause flooding. The drawdown shrinks the surface area of the reservoir by 40 percent.

This is what the Waterbury Reservoir looked like for seven years after it was drained in 2000 for dam construction work. The 850-acre summer swimming and boating center all but vanished. Photo by Gordon Miller/Stowe Reporter

Once the runoff ends, the reservoir level is increased to 589 feet above sea level, creating the swimming-boating mecca at the state park.

The watershed division is concerned that the lowering and raising of water levels does not meet current water standards, said Bill Shepeluk, Waterbury’s municipal manager.

If the decision is to keep water levels low, then recreation at the reservoir would come to an end.

Shepeluk suspects state and federal officials have no idea of the furor that the reservoir debate will cause.

“This is a big issue to Waterbury residents, and people will be surprised at how passionate everyone feels about these things,” he predicted.

The community will have a chance to weigh in on the situation at a meeting tentatively scheduled for Oct. 7 from 6:30 to 8:30 p.m. at Thatcher Brook Primary School.

Competing interests

The Waterbury dam was finished in 1938 to prevent the kind of flooding that devastated Waterbury and other Vermont communities in 1927.

The dam holds back the water from the Little River, which flows south from Stowe toward the Winooski River. The Little River carries the runoff from the Stowe valley, including massive winter snowmelt from Mount Mansfield and the western side of the Worcester mountain range.

Once the reservoir was created, fish, loons and other flora and fauna made it their home.

Waterbury has already had a seven-year taste of what life would be like without the reservoir. In 2000, the reservoir was drained so construction workers could shore up the dam; the job took seven years and $24 million.

Shepeluk said Green Mountain Power tends to keep the summertime water level as close to 589 feet above sea level as possible, with a 1-foot leeway up or down. It uses that 2-foot range to generate electricity.

“These 2 feet of fluctuations don’t cause tremendous problems, but they can have a significant effect on water quality,” Shepeluk said.

The watershed division would prefer a permit that says the reservoir depth can’t flucuate up and down, Shepeluk said. Ultimately, it would like the water level to remain low, close to the normal wintertime level, he said.

If the water level is low, Green Mountain Power can still produce electricity from the Little River’s flow. But the hydropower would be less reliable. Now, adjusting the reservoir height ensures a steady flow of water through Green Mountain Power’s turbine, but a shrunken reservoir would make the hydropower dependent on the weather — similar to the utility’s other river-run facilities across the state.

Another option is to keep the reservoir even lower, near 550 feet above sea level — a 39-foot reduction in the normal summertime depth.

In this balancing of competing interests, Shepeluk said the hydropower plant, the environment and recreation could all be losers.

“We will be looking at solutions to allow all the stakeholders to get what they want,” he said.

While Crocker wouldn’t comment in detail, he said “there’s a possibility of changes to the recreation proportions of things but the opportunity would still exist. The parks may have to be redesigned.”…

Waterbury Reservoir Risk Management Project

Better amenities on the way for public at Waterbury Reservoir | Vermont  Business Magazine

The dam at Waterbury Reservoir in Waterbury is situated on the Little River, about 2.5 miles above its confluence with the Winooski River. From Waterbury, the dam can be reached by traveling two miles west on U.S. Route 2, then right on Little River Road for three miles.

In conjunction with East Barre Dam and Wrightsville Reservoir, Waterbury Reservoir provides flood protection to the downstream communities of Duxbury, Bolton, Richmond, Williston, Jericho, Essex, Colchester, Burlington, South Burlington, and Winooski.

Construction of the project began in April 1935 and was completed in October 1938. The project consists of an earthfill dam with stone slope protection 1,845 feet long and 187 feet high; an 882-foot-long semicircular concrete conduit 10.5 feet high and 14 feet wide; two 230-foot-long steel conduits, each with a diameter of four feet six inches; a 290-foot-long steel circular conduit with a diameter of four feet; three 26.5-foot-high tainter gates, with two gates each measuring 20 feet wide and the third 35 feet wide; and a spillway cut in rock with a 154-foot-long concrete ogee weir. The weir’s crest elevation is 15.5 feet lower than the top of the dam. Waterbury Reservoir was one of four flood damage reduction projects constructed in Vermont by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) in the 1930s. Construction was overseen by the Corps’ North Atlantic Division. Because of accounting procedures, the construction costs of Waterbury Reservoir were not calculated separately, but instead lumped together with the construction costs of East Barre Dam, Wrightsville Reservoir, and the Winooski River Local Protection Project. The construction costs of these four projects totaled $13.7 million. Following completion, Waterbury Reservoir and associated lands were turned over to the state of Vermont for operation and maintenance.

The present-day configuration of the dam is the result of two major modifications that allow a greater amount of water to pass through the spillway, increasing the dam’s structural integrity. The first modification, which began in September 1956, included raising the dam three feet and installing the 35-foot-wide tainter gate. This work was completed in November 1959 at a cost of $861,000. The second modification began in January 1985 and involved constructing the 290-foot-long steel conduit, rebuilding the toe of the dam, and grouting the dam’s foundation to control seepage. This work was completed in December 1985 at a cost of $4.8 million.

For most of the year, Waterbury Reservoir has a pool of 860 acres with a maximum depth of approximately 100 feet. During the winter, the pool is drained to a surface area of between 250-300 acres by the Green Mountain Power Corporation, owners of the hydroelectric power plant at the base of the dam (see below), in anticipation of spring rains and snowmelt. The flood storage area of the project, which is normally empty and utilized only to store floodwaters, totals 1,330 acres and extends approximately six miles upstream through Stowe. The project and all associated lands (including part of Mount Mansfield State Forest) cover 12,912 acres. Waterbury Reservoir can store up to nine billion gallons of water for flood control purposes. This is equivalent to 4.8 inches of water covering its drainage area of 109 square miles.

Swim, paddle or picnic at reservoir in Waterbury

The main recreational attraction at Waterbury Reservoir is the Little River State Park, a 1,100-acre block within the larger 37,000-acre Mount Mansfield State Forest. Little River State Park has a 60-acre campground on the western shore of the reservoir containing 101 campsites (20 of these sites have lean-tos), each with its own picnic table and fireplace. There are two designated swimming areas: Area A has about 300 feet of beach situated on one side of Stevenson’s Brook Cove, and Area B, located approximately 650 feet across the cove, has about 150 feet of beach. Little River State Park also has an excellent marked trail system, with dozens of hiking trails totaling about 30 miles. During the winter, about 17 miles of trail are marked for snowmobiling, with the remainder marked for cross-country skiing. The campground has a boat ramp (located in Area A); boat rentals; hot showers; drinking water; and sanitary facilities.

History buffs take note: There are three areas of archeological and historical significance within the Little River State Park. They are:

  • The Civilian Conservation Corps campsite used by the workers constructing the dam at Waterbury Reservoir. Between 1933 and 1939 over 2,000 men lived and worked here. At one time, this self contained community featured more than 80 buildings. Although a few foundations exist, none of the buildings remain. This area is located on Little River Road, about .25 mile southwest of the dam.
  • The foundations of a farm community dating back to the late 1800s. This site is situated about 2.5 miles northwest of Stevenson’s Brook Cove.
  • Several foundations of farmhouses dating back to the late 1700s. These are located near Cotton Brook, about eight miles north of dam. Note that the final six miles of travel must be made through woods; this site is not directly accessible by car.

Another recreational area enjoyed by visitors to Waterbury Reservoir is the Waterbury Reservoir Day Use Recreation Area, a 90-acre peninsula situated on Town Highway 17 (Old River Road), about .25 mile off Route 100. This site offers picnicking on 12 tables and 10 charcoal grills; swimming on 220 feet of beach; a concrete boat ramp; snowmobiling and cross-country skiing on unmarked trails; and sanitary facilities.

Three other areas offer limited recreational opportunities. The Waterbury Reservoir Boat Launch Area is located immediately behind the dam and provides boaters with an area in which to unload. The Blush Hill Recreation Area, located on Route 100 about six miles north of the dam, offers snowmobiling on marked trails. The Little River Canoe Access Area, located on Moscow Road (off Route 100) about five miles north of the dam, allows canoeists easy access to the reservoir. All of the above-mentioned recreational areas are operated and maintained by the Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation, except for the Waterbury Reservoir Boat Launch Area, …


Lake Area:

860 acres

click for larger map of Waterbury Center State Park

Lake Max. Depth:

100 feet

Fish Species

Rainbow troutbrown troutrainbow smeltsmallmouth bassbullhead, and yellow perch.


family fishing at Little River State Park

When the Little River was dammed, it created the Waterbury Reservoir. Little River flows into the reservoir at its north end and out of the reservoir via controlled flow at its southern end. The reservoir features clear water and a bottom consisting of a mix of sand, silt, gravel, boulders and ledge.

Quality fish habitat ranges from submerged trees and brush, to rocky points, bluff walls, gravel banks and some aquatic vegetation.

Park Fishing Tips

Waterbury Reservoir provides anglers with the opportunity to fish diverse fish-holding habitat including submerged woody cover, rocky points, bluff walls and some aquatic vegetation. Fallen trees cover a wide range of depths and will produce fish during all open water months.

A good portion of the reservoir’s shoreline consists of steep rock walls that can be very productive for smallmouth bass during the warmest months. Fish these walls with unweighted soft plastic lures and suspending jerk baits. If you are looking for a rush, get out in the early morning and enjoy a fantastic top water bite! While fishing with these tactics, anglers may also hook into some nice yellow perch, rainbow trout and brown trout.

Shoreline fishing opportunities abound at Waterbury Center State Park and via various trails around the reservoir. Wild brook trout and rainbow trout can also be found in Stevenson Brook, which flows through Little River State Park on the southern end of the reservoir.  Or you can take a canoe, kayak or motorboat to any fishing spots on your radar! 

Nearby Fishing License Dealers

You can purchase a fishing license at Parro’s Gun Shop in Waterbury, The Fly Rod Shop in Stowe, or online.

Nearby Boating Access Areas

Various boat launches are available on Waterbury Reservoir, including launching areas at Little River State ParkWaterbury Reservoir State Park, and adjacent to the Waterbury Reservoir dam.…

Man-made Reservoirs

Man-made reservoirs, sometimes called artificial lakes, are important water sources in many countries around the world. In contrast to natural processes of lake formation, reservoirs are artificial, usually formed by constructing a dam across a river or by diverting a part of the river flow and storing the water in a reservoir. Upon completion of the dam, the river pools behind the dam and fills the artificially created basin (UNEP 2000). Seasonal changes of runoff and precipitation feed the reservoir. There are big differences in the size of man-made reservoirs such as big artificial lakes or small pond-like waterbodies. The stored water can be used for irrigation, drinking water after purification, or to produce energy.


On-stream storage reservoir formed by a dam across a valley and its water cycle

A reservoir is an artificial lake called a man-made reservoir. It can be formed by building a dam across a valley, by excavating the land, or by surrounding a piece of land with dykes and diverting a part of the river flow into the reservoir. The water is stored in the reservoir and can be used for irrigationhydro-power, or as a water source for domestic or industrial use. Man-made reservoirs are also very effective constructions to control unexpected floods (see also stormwater management). A reservoir is fed by precipitation, rainwater runoff, or a constant flow of a river. Water loss can occur due to evaporation (especially in arid regions) and depending on the reservoir bottom due to percolation (small reservoirs are often linked). Sediments from rivers or surface runoff can reduce the storage volume of a man-made reservoir significantly (FAO 1992).

Water stored in a valley usually has a higher level than the valley bottom downstream of the dam. Because of this difference in level, the valley can be irrigated by a gravity system or other distribution systems. Water can be taken from the reservoir via a concrete or steel pipe. This pipe connects the reservoir to an irrigation canal downstream. A valve is usually located on the upstream end of the pipe to control the discharge of water into the canal (FAO 1992). The kinetic energy of reservoirs is often used to produce electricity (see also hydropower small-scale and hydropower large-scale).

Ecological Impacts

Where no such water body previously existed the presence of a reservoir in a drainage basin and the abstraction of significant water amounts for storage upstream significantly impacts the watercourse, the flora and fauna, and the human inhabitants in the drainage basin. These potential impacts should be identified and thoroughly examined prior to reservoir construction, in order to comprehensively assess the total value of the reservoir project. Procedures to identify and properly evaluate potential environmental, social, and economic consequences of reservoir construction involve the so-called ‘Environmental Impact Assessment’ (EIA). Such an assessment is now obligatory by law in many countries for all new dam constructions (UNEP 2000).

Ecological impacts of reservoir dams have been reported from various aspects such as barrier for migratory animals like anadromous fish, eutrophication of reservoirs by plankton blooming, decreasing flow volumes in tailwaters, stabilization of flow regimes by flood peak cut, changes in thermal regimes of river water, river bed degradation and increase in substrate grain size by sediment trapping, etc. (TAKEMON 2006). Furthermore, big dams and the extraction of water (e.g. for spate irrigation) can create riparian conflicts (see water conflicts). Also, read the paragraph “Impact on Environment” in the rivers factsheet.

Comparison of the riverbed landscape between upstream and downstream reaches of the Yasugawa Dam in the Yasu River in central Japan. The dam is as old as 53 years and the distinctive riverbed armouring can be observed. White part of rocks indicates thick accumulation of organic matter originated from the reservoir
Comparison of the riverbed landscape between upstream and downstream reaches of the Yasugawa Dam in the Yasu River in central Japan. The dam is as old as 53 years and the distinctive riverbed armoring can be observed. The white part of rocks indicates a thick accumulation of organic matter originated from the reservoir. Source: TAKEMON (2006) 

Basic Design Principles

Factsheet Block Body

Adapted from UNEP (2000)

Different types of reservoir systems.
Different types of reservoir systems. Source: UNEP (2000) 

Like lakes, reservoirs range in size from pond-like to very large water bodies (e.g. Lake Powell, U.S.A.). The variations in type and shape, however, are much greater than for lakes. The term ‘reservoir’ includes several types of constructed water bodies and/or water storage facilities:

  • Valley reservoirs – created by constructing a barrier (dam) perpendicular to a flowing river.
  • Off-river storage reservoirs – created by constructing an enclosure parallel to a river, and subsequently supplying it with water either by gravity or by pumping from the river.

The latter reservoirs are sometimes called embankment or bounded reservoirs and have controlled inflows and outflows to and from one or more rivers. In addition to single reservoirs, reservoir systems also exist and include cascade reservoirs – consisting of a series of reservoirs constructed along a single river, and inter-basin transfer schemes – designed to move water through a series of reservoirs, tunnels, and/or canals from one drainage basin to another.

Pumping from a Reservoir for Irrigation

Adapted from FAO (1992)

A small reservoir in the hills of Tepoztlán (Morelos, Mexico), which is mainly filled by precipitation catchment. The water is extracted by gravity and is protected by a fence to avoid contamination from animals or unauthorised use. The reservoir is sealed with an impermeable liner
A small reservoir in the hills of Tepoztlán (Morelos, Mexico), which is mainly filled by precipitation catchment. The water is extracted by gravity and is protected by a fence to avoid contamination from animals or unauthorized use. The reservoir is sealed with an impermeable liner. Source: STAUFFER (2009) 

The fields located around the reservoir upstream of a dam or surrounding a natural lake are higher than the reservoir or lake’s water table. Here irrigation is only possible with the help of pumping stationsmanual or motorized pumping.

The water level in the reservoir is usually highest at the end of the rainy season, and lowest at the end of the dry season or the irrigation season. Pumps installed at reservoirs and lakes must be able to handle these fluctuations, which are not only vertical but even more pronounced horizontally because the water recedes back to the lowest parts of the reservoir. A dead branch of a river can also be made to function as a reservoir. The branch is filled with water during the wet season and closed off during the dry season so that …

10 Tips for Buying a Tank

This section is designed to help you make an informed decision and choose the best tank for your needs, ensuring that it continues to do an effective job for many years to come.  It’s also vital to know that a water tank is made of the right material for your family’s health and local conditions.  Ask your agent or manufacturer if your poly tank meets and contact us for more information.

Enduraplas Blogs | Water Storage & Rain Harvesting | Buying a Water Tank

Polyethylene Storage Tanks for Water & Chemicals? They will be able to show you a copy of their certification or the tank will be clearly marked as being licensed to the standard.  

The standard isn’t mandatory, or necessarily applicable depending on your tank material, here are some great questions to ask when buying a tank to ensure you’re getting a quality product:

Where was the tank made?

Some imported tanks are made from material that isn’t suitable, might not have a warranty, or include fittings that are difficult and expensive to replace.

Is the plastic used in the tank certified as safe for drinking (potable) water?

Whether it’s just the lining or the entire tank, properly certified polyethylene is safe for drinking water. Unfortunately, some imported tanks may not be made from a material that has been properly tested.  It is important to note that some councils do not allow tank water to be used for drinking.

Does the manufacturer maintain a product trace system?

Good manufacturers will be able to trace your product to its source materials and will hold records of when and where it was made.  They will also be able to provide details of the tests it underwent before leaving the factory.

Does the tank have a warranty?

Don’t be seduced by lengthy extended warranties. Ten years is a very reasonable warranty period for plastic tanks.  Steel and concrete tanks typically have longer warranty periods, 10-20 for steel and 20-30 for concrete. Carefully read the conditions and installation instructions before you buy so that you know your rights and obligations should you ever need to make a claim.

Has the tank design been tested?

Like any material, plastic has some limitations when it is placed under stress (by filling). It’s important that your tank has been well designed and properly tested to ensure it’s suitability for purpose.  Although steel and concrete are stronger materials, it is still important to make sure the design is suitable.

Is the stated capacity of the tank calculated according to the Standard?

The calculation in the standards ensures that manufacturers can only state the actual amount of water that can be stored in the tank once fittings have been installed.

How should I maintain my tank and installation to ensure my warranty remains valid?

Your manufacturer should provide you with written guidelines to help you maintain the base fittings and installation of your tank so it will last and continue to provide excellent quality water storage.

Has the thickness and colour of the plastic been calculated according to the Standard?

The Standard sets strict guidelines concerning the thickness and colour of the material to prevent light entering the tank as this can lead to algae growth.

Does the plastic contain UV protection specifically for our Australian climate?

Our local climate can be incredibly harsh.  Polyethylene is ideal because it contains UV-stabilizing ingredients.  It’s important to check whether the polyethylene used in the manufacture of your tank has been made in Australia. Polyethylene made in Australia has more than twice the UV protection called for in the Australian Standard so you can be sure it is suitable for the tough Australian conditions.

Is the tank made by a member of the Association of Rotational Moulders?

The Association of Rotational Moulders (ARMA) is a representative body of the majority of leading poly tank manufacturers in Australia and New Zealand. We help our members to maintain their status at the forefront of the industry and to set the leading standards in the water tank marketplace.…

How to Select the Best Fluid Reservoir for your Dispensing Application

Often the fluid reservoir for assembly fluids such as glue, oil, grease, and epoxy is decided by the fluid manufacturer. Many industrial fluids are pre-packaged in syringes, cartridges, bottles, or pails before reaching the factory floor. There are, however, a few recommendations manufacturers can consider when selecting the best possible fluid reservoir for an efficient, productive dispensing process.

Looking at the volume of products you’re manufacturing, the type of fluid you’re using, and types of fluid reservoirs available can help you choose the optimal solution and improve the quality of your dispensing results. Although it’s always best to first talk to an expert fluid application specialist, here are a few recommendations to help along your journey.

Let Your Production Volume Be Your Guide

Production capacity should be a key consideration when deciding what type of fluid reservoir you need. If your manufacturing process requires just one 10cc syringe barrel per station per shift with no issues, there’s no need to look at other solutions. If you find your process requires multiple 10cc syringe barrels per station per shift, it may be time to opt for a larger syringe, cartridge, or even a tank to reduce the downtime it takes to swap out smaller syringe barrels frequently throughout the day.

Keep in mind that dispensing syringes and cartridges may still be the best option regardless of production capacity. It depends on the material being dispensed. Because syringe barrels and cartridges are disposable, they’re easier to handle with minimal clean up or maintenance.

  • Recommendations for Low-Volume ProductionFor low-volume production or very small, precise deposits, you’ll likely need a 3cc to 55cc syringe barrel. For low- to medium-volume production with high-viscosity materials, you’ll more often use a 2.5 oz to 32 oz (75 ml to 960 ml) cartridge. For lower viscosity/self-leveling materials, a tank may be considered.
  • Recommendations for Medium-Volume ProductionFor medium-volume production with lower viscosity/self-leveling materials, a 1-liter (0.26 gal) or 5-liter (1.32 gal) tank would be optimal. For high-viscosity materials, a cartridge may still be the best option.
  • Recommendations for High-Volume ProductionFor high-volume production and/or larger deposit sizes of lower viscosity/self-leveling materials, a tank is the best option. For high-volume production with high-viscosity materials, a ratio pump should be considered.
Cartridges Filled

Bigger Fluid Reservoirs Aren’t Always Better

It may seem like choosing a bottle or pail instead of a dispensing syringe or cartridge would increase production since it may not require replacing as often. However, certain considerations such as cleaning and wasted material should not be overlooked.

If the fluid tank you select doesn’t have a replaceable liner or accept pre-filled bottles or pails, cleaning becomes a problem, especially if the fluid is an adhesive or reactive fluid. The time it takes to clean the tank to prevent material from hardening or contaminating new material could surpass the time it takes to switch out a pre-packaged syringe or cartridge.

Fluid waste is another consideration. Industrial syringe barrels and cartridges are designed to minimize fluid waste. When fitted with perfectly matched pistons, fluid can be dispensed completely with hardly a trace residue left in the reservoir. This is important when your process requires an expensive, specialized assembly fluid.

Useful Tip: When selecting a fluid tank, always opt for a tank with a liner and a large opening that makes it easy to clean. Or opt for a tank that accepts pre-filled bottles or pails to make replacing the fluid fast and easy with no cleaning required.

Tanks are Great, but Only with Pourable Fluids

Fluid viscosity is another key consideration when selecting the optimal fluid reservoir for your dispensing application. Whereas fluid cartridges and syringe barrels can handle any fluid viscosity, fluid tanks only accept pourable or self-leveling fluids, otherwise known as low- to medium-viscosity fluids. This can impact your process when, for example, you have a high-volume production capacity and a high-viscosity fluid.

When this is the case, a ratio pump is often the best solution since it accepts pre-filled 5- and 55-gallon drums and provides up to 2500 psi (172 bar) of pressure to promote superior flow of thick fluids to the dispensing equipment.

If you have a low- to medium-volume production capacity and a high-viscosity fluid, a dispensing syringe or cartridge is best because the piston helps dispense the material evenly for accurate, repeatable results.

If you put a thick material such as petroleum jelly into a fluid tank, the tank’s pressure may introduce air tunneling into the material since the air cannot be applied evenly onto an uneven surface. This would result in inconsistent material deposits, which could create unnecessary rework and rejects.

Dispensing Method and Fluid Type Also Matter

Sometimes the method of application influences the type of reservoir you should use. For example, if the application requires a manual dispensing method, it’s often easier and more ergonomic for the operator to hold a syringe barrel as opposed to a dispense valve with air and fluid tubing connected.

On the other hand, if you have an automated cyanoacrylate or fast-curing glue application, you would likely opt for a tank as opposed to switching out multiple syringe barrels per shift. But if you had an automated silver-filled epoxy application, you may not have a choice. You may have to switch out multiple syringes barrels because of the nature of the fluid itself. Fluid reservoir selection often depends on a combination of factors, including the dispensing method, the type of fluid, and requirements of the application.

Fluid Reservoir Troubleshooting

One common pitfall when selecting a fluid reservoir is choosing a fluid reservoir without a precision pressure regulator. This often leads to inconsistent dispensing results because when you set a non-precision pressure regulator at 40 psi, it will fluctuate from 35 psi to 45 psi throughout the course of a day.

Nordson EFD fluid tanks feature precision fluid pressure regulators, which essentially means if you set one at 40 psi, it will maintain constant pressure for a much more precise, repeatable dispensing result. This creates the …

Spotlight on Public Access Greeter Program: Waterbury Reservoir

Visitors to Waterbury Reservoir may have encountered something new at the lake this year: a nice young man wearing a yellow “Public Access Greeter” shirt. This summer was the inaugural year for a Public Access Greeter Program at Waterbury Reservoir, which was established by Friends of Waterbury Reservoir (FWR) with assistance from the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation’s aquatic nuisance control grant-in-aid program. A part-time greeter, along with a motivated group of volunteers from FWR, offered invasive species education and boat inspections at multiple launch sites around this aquatic gem in central Vermont.

The 860-acre reservoir receives over 60,000 combined visitors to the state parks on the shores of the lake, as well as three public access sites. This year, the greeter and volunteers focused their efforts on the heavily used Blush Hill boat access area. They kept a keen eye out for watercraft and trailers that might be bearing Eurasian watermilfoil, which is not present in the reservoir. Another goal was to contain the spread of brittle naiad, an easily spread invasive plant currently found in portions of the reservoir but rare in other Vermont waterbodies.

During the course of the summer, the greeter and FWR volunteers had over 400 individual interactions with boaters. In three instances, boats were intercepted before leaving the reservoir with live plants attached, and in two of those instances, the species in question were invasive. Luckily, no plant material was found on boats or trailers launching into the reservoir, but there were four occasions when excessive water was drained from boats coming from other lakes. Small-bodied invasive organisms, such as spiny water fleas and juvenile zebra mussels, can be transported in very small amounts of water, so ensuring boats enter the lake drained of water is a primary concern of any public access greeter program.

According to FWR, the inaugural year of the program was highly successful. Zach Johnston, the part-time greeter, did a great job engaging people in conversations and answering questions about the program. FWR noted that they were happily surprised by how interested and appreciative folks were that a greeter was present at the reservoir and that many had further questions about invasive species in general and were interested in the printed material handed out.

Some encouraging words from Chuck Kletecka and Laurie Smith, who administered the program for FWR:

“Overall, the program went really well for our first year. Although we did not have many interceptions, we were able to educate many people and introduce them to the dangers of invasive species introductions. One common thread between all the people we interacted with was the love of Waterbury Reservoir. We hope this summer was just the start of future efforts by the State and FWR to share the ‘love’ and keep our beloved reservoir the beautiful resource it is for years to come.”

Better amenities on the way for public at Waterbury Reservoir

Vermont Business Magazine Eight months of work is underway to improve public access areas at the Waterbury Reservoir. The project will require temporary closures at some sites while work is underway, and will include improvements to parking lots, erosion prevention, and boat ramp upgrades. The locations include Waterbury Dam Boat Launch, Blush Hill Boat Launch and the Moscow Paddler Access. Green Mountain Power (GMP) will be doing the work as part of the company’s commitment to improving the Waterbury Dam and surrounding areas. GMP recently received a renewed license from the Federal Energy Regulation Commission to operate a hydropower generation facility at the Waterbury Dam.

The Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation says the popularity of the Waterbury Reservoir is growing. “The improvements that Green Mountain Power will make over the next 8 months could not come at a better time,” said Susan Bulmer, Northeast State Parks Regional Manager.

 “We know what a valuable community resource this waterway is and we’re glad to work with the state to make these important upgrades,” said Jason Lisai, Green Mountain Power’s Director of Generation Operations.

As part of the Green Mountain Power improvements, a parking area, river access, and anglers’ trail were recently installed along Little River Road just downstream of Waterbury Dam. The trail was constructed as a collaborative effort with the Vermont state trail crew and GMP. This river access is currently open to the public for use.

All three locations will be finished for the 2019 summer season. Long-term maintenance and management will be performed by the Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation.

Waterbury Reservoir is the ninth largest waterbody in Vermont, created in the 1930s by the Civilian Conservation Corps as a flood control project. There are two State Parks and 30 remote campsites located on its shores and many people access the reservoir for boating, wildlife viewing, swimming, camping, and fishing each year. Waterbury Reservoir is surrounded almost completely by state land, managed primarily by the Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation as part of the 44,444-acre Mount Mansfield State Forest.

Scheduled Closures:

Waterbury Dam Boat Launch

Closed: October 14 – November 8, 2018 and February 8 – February 18, 2019

Site improvements will include:

  • Installation of a new composting toilet
  • Installation of a concrete boat launch
  • Paving of the access road and parking area (may occur in Spring 2019 depending on weather conditions)
  • Erosion control and site drainage improvements
  • Traffic flow improvements

Blush Hill Boat Launch

Closed: November 9 – November 27, 2018 and February 19 – February 27, 2019

Site improvements will include:

  • Installation of a concrete boat launch
  • Re-grading the parking area
  • Guard rail installation
  • Erosion control and site drainage improvements

Moscow Paddler Access

Closed: November 28 – December 6, 2018

Site improvements will include:

  • Installation of a concrete hand carry access ramp
  • Re-grading the parking area
  • Erosion control and site drainage improvements

Contact us for more information.…